6 Components Physical Fitness

Hello all and welcome to another article regarding physical fitness. Physical fitness is so important to our health and well-being. Exercise is a daily routine we should all focus on, to achieve physical fitness objectives. Consequently, attaining it is crucial for medical reasons and our mental health. It will benefit us in fewer health issues and leading to a healthier future. The exercise is done in achieving physical fitness include benefits. These benefits are stress relief, adding years to your life span. Therefore allows for more energy and is great in making you feel better. We will explore ‘6 components physical fitness’ to have a better understanding of each component.


What are the 6 components physical fitness

The 6 fitness components which are also skill-related are agility, coordination, balance, power, speed and reaction time. Fitness components are targeting two or more body parts to improve them. Good examples of these body parts combination are dribbling a ball in soccer or similarly dribbling a ball in basketball.

How  6 components of physical fitness are helping



Agility is the capability to quickly change your body direction either to accelerate or decelerate. 6 - components - physical - fitnessConsequently, it is influenced by strength, coordination, balance and skill level. Conditioning forms a base of strength for the difficulty level of the exercise activity and improves agility. Consequently, conditioning improves reactive and explosive motor skills by exercise drills designed for gradual incorporation.


Guidelines for agility training


The person should have a strength/conditioning base for the chosen drills

Allow adequate warm-up.

Agility exercises achieved are in the early parts of the training session.
Preferably on separate days to maximize training effect, avoid fatigue,
and prevent overuse.

The number of sessions per week may vary depending on the sport, the individual’s
current level and history of injury, the intensity of the drill, and the period
of the mesocycle. Two times per week as a general rule.

Allow adequate rest between sets and repetitions. Heart rate and respiration

should return to almost normal levels after the drill. The recommendation is for a 1 : 4-6 work-to-rest ratio.

Volume: two to five sets of each exercise.

Quality, not quantity.

It is advisable to note there are many agility tests such as Arrowhead and Star covering both adults and children. Designed tests for agility are provided to improve capability and support to exercise routines.




6 - components - physical - fitnessCoordination is the body’s capability to perform efficient and smooth movements. Good coordination combines many movements into one single movement that is fluid and achieves the intended goal. Also, this is not what most people think as a first thought which is hand-eye coordination. Hand-eye coordination is the relationship between hand and eye movements. Usually, this is when our hands make a movement. In response to our eye movement as in baseball or similar sport.

Gross and fine motor skills involve coordination. Gross motor skills are about large movements and muscle groups like jumping, kicking, walking and many more. Fine motor skills involve small movements and the fluid ease by which they are performed.



Coordination is entwined with movement efficiency

You will not be wrong to say coordination is movement efficiency including on exercise equipment. However, the more coordinated the individual is the more efficient their movement is. As a result this effectively permits better performance. The more coordinated the individual is the better the ability to save energy in their movements. Therefore, they are able to last longer in greater workloads than less well-coordinated individual’s.

Coordination is also about foot-eye and hand-eye coordination. These type of coordination is related to the tracking of moving people and objects. Good hand-eye coordination results in being good in catching, throwing and hitting a ball. Consequently, this enables them more success in sports such as basketball, cricket, baseball, hockey, rugby, netball and many others. Good foot-eye will allow for success in for example sports such as football, lacrosse and many others.


Selecting exercises in practice :

exercises with apparatus (rotation exercises, shapes)

exercises with tools (skipping ropes, balls, cones, coordination ladder, bosu )

acrobatic exercises (rolls, take-offs, skips, linked exercises)

exercises related to overcoming hurdles (slalom tracks, hurdle tracks)

stride variations

minor resistance exercises

Coordination tests only predict performance and how the test relates to that performance. An example of this is the ball toss test which is a hand-eye coordination test. Although it identifies individual’s with good hand-eye coordination it does not mean they are good in baseball. Tests require specific to be specific to the sport to be more accurate.



Balance as a component of physical fitness refers to the individual’s ability to remain in6 - components - physical - fitness control of their body’s position. It is normally the ability to remain in an upright position only not necessarily so.  Performing a floor exercise equally achieves balance. Therefore, there are two types of balance the dynamic and the static.

Dynamic Balance

Dynamic balance occurs while the individual is moving. An example could be as simple as running or walking. Alternatively, it can be complex as in tight line walking or a gymnast on a balance beam.

Static Balance

Static balance is the balance of an individual when they are stationary. A good example is when a soccer player is standing in a defence wall. When an opposition player takes a free-kick. Static balance is what most people think of initially as balance.

Movement Efficiency

Balance also relates to movement efficiency as it is a base for both non-movement and general movement.to happen. As a result, agility requires very good dynamic balance for an individual to change direction. In response to a requirement to do so. The individual with good balance and agility will expend less energy, increased movement efficiency allowing the individual to improve performance.


Guidelines for balance training :

Prescribe multifaceted activities such as tai chi and yoga.

Have clients engage in balance activities 2 or 3 days/wk.

Use exercises that stress postural muscles, such as heel stands and toe stands. Also, exercises that reduce visual or sensory input, such as standing with eyes closed or standing on a foam pad.

Displace the centre of mass by stepping over obstacles and balancing on a rocker platform.

Include dynamic movements that challenge the centre of gravity such as tandem walking and circle turns.

Many individual’s especially athletes require balance testing to help improve and predict performance. Consequently, it is important to know that test requires to be specific. To balance performance and the activity or sport involved.






6 - components - physical - fitness Power is the critical key component for explosive exercises that prepare the individual for jumping, short bursts of running or the start of a sprint. It is also very important for activities for power sports like boxing iron man activities such as the pentathlon etc. If strength is the maximum force produced by muscles, then power is the speed by which this force is implemented.


How to train it

Specific processes are required as Power training, as a rule, is very sport-specific. As a result, specific processes are required. Consequently, it is not a matter of making a decision and then start to do power training. That may be the fastest route to a possible injury. Thus requires the supervision of a coach or a trainer to avoid overtraining.


How to measure it

Power is measured in a variety of ways and especially exercises that are explosive and dynamic. A push press or sprinting up a flight of stairs while being timed are good examples. However, the easiest measurement is the squat jump test.

A squat jump test involves simply standing in front of a wall with a pen marker. Raise your hand with the pen marker above your head. With your feet flat on the ground and mark the wall. Next, get into a squat position and from there jump as high as you can. While at the same time extending your hand to mark the wall. The distance between the marks will give a measurement of power. You can expand on this by taking the test with each leg. Note any significant difference in power between both legs.



Speed is dependent on acceleration (how fast an individual is able to accelerate from a standing position)6 - components - physical - fitness therefore not how fast someone is in running, swimming or cycling. Speed maintenance (minimizing deceleration), the maximum speed of movement, thus movement speed requires strength and power.

However, It is pertinent to note that too much bodyweight and air resistance can slow a person down. Equally, in addition to having a high proportion of twitch muscle fibres. It is critical to have efficient mechanics of movement to make optimum the muscle power required for economical movement technique.


Who Needs Speed

Speed is a major physical fitness component and important for success in different sports. For many individual’s sprint swimmers cyclists, field sprinters and speed skaters speed is ‘the aspect’ of fitness. Also, it is important in many group sports to have good speed as part of the individual’s overall fitness profile.

To improve your speed, follow these general principles :

Teach your body to train at your goal pace. So your coordination, confidence and stamina are in the speed you want to be in.

Choose a realistic goal for your event. Then work on running in speeds that are faster than your goal for short distances.

To work on your cardiovascular capacity and maximum intensity level,

include some light pace runs to allow recovery from the speed sessions.

Always work on a range of motion (mobility) in all joints to prevent injuries and improve speed. The hips are especially important because they affect your ability to reach maximum speeds.


The development of speed is especially very specific :


Strength and speed are developed simultaneously.

Skill development (technique) is learned first, rehearsed then perfected. Before adding a higher level of speed.

Speed training includes fast and short sprints so your nerve, muscle, and energy systems can adapt and develop.

Flexibility is developed and maintained all year round.


Reaction time.

Reaction time relates to the ability of an individual to react rapidly to the senses of seeing, feeling and hearing. A good example is a baseball player stealing a base or a basketball or a football player intercepting a pass.

The type of drills here depends on the sport and the type of reaction required. As a result, many exercises can be illustrated and a cognitive reaction time exercise is selected for an example.




Cognitive Reaction Time Exercises


Four-Cone Colour Reaction Drill

Create a box using four coloured cones spread five yards apart (or use cones with coloured paper)

Assume the athletic position in the centre

React to the partner’s colour command and sprint to appropriate cone

Plant feet and touch cone

Sprint to centre of the box and react to partner’s next command

Continue for a specified duration

Sets/Duration: 4×30 seconds




Thus as you can see that the components for physical fitness are vital in playing a part in our health and well-being well into the future. The ‘six components physical fitness’ are essentially a select few to not overburden individuals. There are more, up to 12 components better suited to top athletes whose fitness levels are maintained to a high standard all year. The 6 components presented must be maintained and expanded upon. Thank you as always for your kind time in reading and exploring the article. Contact me through my contact details found at the top of the page. Please feel free to leave a comment in the comment box below on your thoughts after kindly reading the article. Wishing you all the best and trust you will be here for the next article. Until then stay safe, take care and all the best to you all.



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4 thoughts on “6 Components Physical Fitness”

  1. Hello Rami, thank you for such an in depth article on the components of physical fitness. I recently took up running and dancing, so this article really helps me a lot in understanding about physical fitness. Outside of my training and class, I also do my own work out sessions to strengthen myself to improve my performance level. I really enjoyed my read on your article as it has so much information and knowledge on what I need to know for physical fitness.  It contains a lot but

    is very worth it for me to learn new things. I really do appreciate your time taken in this article, as it really does help me a lot in my training process. Will definitely take in all these pointers, and focus on it as well. Great job done, Rami and keep it up!

    • Hello,

      Thank you for leaving a kind comment.

      I am glad it has been a useful exercise for you to take on.

      Thank you so much again for leaving a kind comment.


  2. Prior to reading this, it was so easy for me to take for granted the specifics of mastering each of these components. Thanks for laying all these out precisely Rami. Power is always an attractive prospect to want to develop, however thanks for emphasising the need to have a coach or personal trainer. Our ill-advised ambitions can often lead us to acquiring injuries that become hard to shake off as we grow older. I now have a better appreciation of each of these components.

    We are Blessed.

    • Hello Mark,

      Thank you very much for taking the time to leave a kind comment.

      Indeed we have to exercise every care possible to keep safe.

      Thank you so much again for your kind comment.



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